Individual Retirement Accounts, or IRAs, are basically savings plans with lots of restrictions. The main advantage of an IRA is that you defer paying taxes on the earnings and growth of your savings until you actually withdraw the money. The main disadvantage is the tax law imposes stiff penalties if you withdraw the funds before you turn age 59.5 years old. There are different types of IRAs, each with their own tax implications and eligibility requirements.

Traditional Individual Retirement Accounts

With a traditional IRA, you get a tax deduction for the savings you contribute to the account. This deduction reduces your taxable income, so you are basically not paying tax on the income you set aside in a Traditional IRA. The savings grow tax-deferred, which means you won't have to include interest, dividends, or capital gains from the IRA in your annual income. When you withdraw the money, the distribution from the IRA is included in your taxable income. It is taxed as ordinary income. If you withdraw the money before reaching age 59 and a half, there is an additional 10% tax on that early distribution. You must begin withdrawing money from a traditional IRA beginning with the year when you turn age 70.5 years old.

There are restrictions on who can take a deduction for Traditional IRA contributions. If you or your spouse are covered by a retirement plan at work, your deduction may be limited or you might not be able to deduct any of your contribution.

Nondeductible Traditional Individual Retirement Accounts

A nondeductible IRA is a traditional IRA. However, the contributions are not tax-deductible. The savings grow tax-deferred. When you start taking distributions, part of the distribution will be a tax-free return of your original, nondeductible contribution, and the rest will be taxed as ordinary income. People usually opt for a nondeductible IRA when they are covered by a retirement plan through their employer and their income is too high to be eligible to deduct their IRA contributions and they want to contribute extra savings towards retirement. The only difference between a nondeductible IRA and a traditional IRA is the tax treatment of the original contribution.

Roth Individual Retirement Accounts

A Roth IRA provides potentially tax-free savings and distributions. Unlike a traditional IRA, you don't get a deduction for your contributions. The savings grow inside of the IRA without needing to pay any taxes on the earnings and growth. Distributions from a Roth IRA are completely tax-free, as long as you meet certain conditions. You can contribute to a Roth IRA even if you are covered by a retirement plan at work. But, Roth IRAs do have income limitations.

How much can I contribute to my IRA and 401k in 2020?

  • The contribution limits for both traditional and Roth IRAs are $6,000 per year.
  • Plus a $1,000 catch-up contribution for those 50 and older, for both tax years 2019 and 2020.
  • You can split your contributions between the two types, but your total contribution is still limited to $6,000 or $7,000.
  • IRA contributions are also limited by your qualifying income. For IRA purposes only, qualifying income means wages, self-employment income, alimony, and nontaxable combat pay. For example, let's say you have wages of $3,500 and no other income. Your can contribute up to $3,500 in any combination of traditional or Roth IRA for the year.
  • The amount you can contribute to your 401(k) or similar workplace retirement plan goes up from $19,000 in 2019 to $19,500 in 2020.
  • The 401(k) catch-up contribution limit, if you're 50 or older in 2020, will be $6,500 for workplace plans, up from $6,000.
  • So super-savers age 50-plus can sock away $33,000 in these tax-advantaged accounts for 2020.
  • If your employer allows after tax contributions or you're self-employed, you can save even more. The overall defined contribution plan limit moves up to $57,000, from $56,000.
  • See The IRS Notice 2019-59 for technical guidance.

Simplified Employee Pension Individual Retirement Accounts

SEP IRAs are a type of group retirement plan. An employer establishes a SEP IRA plan, and then makes contributions to a traditional IRA set up inside of the SEP IRA plan. SEP IRAs are popular with self-employed people, because SEP IRAs allow for higher contribution limits than a regular IRA. Otherwise, SEP IRAs are treated similarly to traditional IRAs. Contributions are made with pre-tax dollars, distributions are taxed as ordinary income, and there are penalties for taking an early distribution.

Savings Incentive Match Plans for Employees

SIMPLE IRAs are also a group retirement plan. They are easier to set up and maintain than 401(k) or pension plans, but they offer lower contribution limits than other group plans. SIMPLE IRAs allow for pre-tax dollars to be contributed, with matching from the employer. Distributions are taxed as ordinary income, and there are penalties for early distributions.

When Contributions Must be Made

You can contribute funds to an IRA at any time throughout the year. After the year has ended, you can still make a contribution towards the previous year's IRA, as long as the contribution is made by the April 15th deadline.


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